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9th Class Biology Chapter Wise Notes

9th Class Biology Chapter Wise Notes.

These notes are perfectly made, which will be of extraordinary advantage to you. With our instructive materials, you can get ready in excess of 100 percent of your Marks. It is a standout amongst other instructive substance on the web. This instructive material has been managed by experienced instructors. Made by an accomplished Biology educator.

This plan is very important for exam preparation. The complete syllabus of the Biology book is described below. Topics / Subtopics / Activities to be covered You must read it.

9th Biology Notes / بیالوجی

1- Introduction to Biology

بیالوجی کا تعارف

Chapter 1: Introduction to Biology
  • Chapter Introduction
  • Divisions of biology
  • Relationship of biology to other sciences
  • Careers in biology
  • Quran and biology
  • Muslim scientists
  • Levels of Organization – subatomic & atomic level; molecular level; organelle and cell level/ tissue level; organ and organ system level; individual level
  • Population-level/ Community and biosphere level
  • Cellular organization – Unicellular and colonial organization
  • Multicellular organization – mustard plant and frog
  • Assessment
  • Practical: Study of different types of bacteria with the help of prepared slides and of AmoebaParameciumVolvox from prepared slides/ fresh culture/charts
  • Practical: Study of the external morphology of mustard plant and microscopic examination of root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, and seeds
  • Practical: Identification of major organs and organ systems in a dissected frog (dissection by demonstrator/teacher)

2- Solving a Biological Problems

با ئیو لو جیکل پرابلمز کو حل کرنا

Chapter 2: Solving a Biological Problem

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Introduction to biological method
  • Recognition of biological problem; observations; formulation of hypothesis; deductions and experiments; reporting the results
  • Study of malaria as an example
  • Theory, law and principle
  • Data organization and data analysis
  • Mathematics as an integral part of the scientific process
  • Assessment

3- Biodiversity

بائیوڈ ائیورسٹی

Chapter 3: Biodiversity

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Introduction and importance of biodiversity
  • Classification: Aims & basis of classification
  • Taxonomic hierarchy
  • Species – basic unit of classification
  • History of classification Systems
  • Two-kingdom & three-kingdom classification system
  • Five-kingdom classification system
  • Characteristics of the five kingdoms
  • Status of viruses
  • Binomial nomenclature; Its significance
  • Conservation of biodiversity; Impacts of human being on nature
  • Practical: Observation of the apparent distinguishing taxonomic characters from fresh and preserved specimens and recognition of plants and animals on the basis of their taxonomic characters
  • Practical: Evaluation of graphs of a population of an insect

4- Cells and Tissues

سیلز اینڈ ٹشوز

Chapter 4: Cells and Tissues

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Microscopy and the emergence of Cell Theory
  • Light microscopy and electron microscopy
  • History of the formulation of Cell Theory
  • Sub-cellular or A-cellular particles
  • Cellular structures and functions; Cell wall
  • Cell membrane; Cytoplasm; cytoskeleton
  • Cell organelles; Nucleus; Ribosomes; Mitochondria; Plastids
  • Endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus ; Lysosomes; Centrioles; Vacuoles
  • Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  • Relationship between cell function and cell structure
  • Cell Size and Surface Area to Volume ratio
  • Passage of molecules into and out of cells – Diffusion; Facilitated diffusion; Osmosis; Filtration; Active transport
  • Endocytosis & Exocytosis
  • Animal tissue – Epithelial tissue
  • Connective tissues, Muscle tissue; Nervous tissue
  • Plant tissues – Simple tissues (Meristemaic tissue & Permanent tissues)
  • Compound tissues (Xylem & Phloem tissue)
  • Assessment
  • Review of Chapter/Test
  • Practical: Use of microscope to observe movement of water in plants and to compare sizes of various types of cells
  • Practical: Examination under the microscope an animal cell (e.g. from frog’s blood) and a plant cell (e.g. from onion epidermis), using an appropriate temporary staining technique, such as iodine or methylene blue
  • Practical: Identification, from fresh preparations, of the cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm in an animal cell and the cell wall, cell membrane, sap vacuole, cytoplasm, nucleus and chloroplasts in a plant cell
  • Practical: Preparation of the wet mounts of tissue from flowering plants and study of plant and animal tissues from charts and prepared slides
  • Practical: Determination of the effect of tonicity on plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in plant cells or in Red Blood Cell
  • Practical: Data collection on the number of stomata per unit area on various plant leaves that grow in areas of differing humidity, and compilation of data in a spreadsheet and graph it to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables

5- Cell Cycle

سیل سائیکل

Chapter 5: Cell Cycle

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Cell cycle
  • Mitosis (Karyokinesis, Cytokinesis)
  • Significance of Mitosis / Errors in mitosis
  • Meiosis; Phases of Meiosis; Prophase 1
  • Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1,Telophase 1
  • Meiosis II; Significance of Meiosis
  • Comparison between mitosis and meiosis
  • Apoptosis and Necrosis
  • Assessment
  • Practical: Observation of various stages of mitosis and meiosis by slides, model and charts
  • Practical: Preparations of root tip squashes and study stages of mitosis

6- Enzymes


Chapter 6: Enzyme

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Introduction of enzymes
  • Mechanism of enzyme action (Lock-n-Key Model)
  • Specificity of Enzymes
  • Assessment
  • Review/Test
  • Practical: Experiment to show working of enzyme in vitro e.g., pepsin working on meat in test tube
  • Practical: Experiment to test enzyme action by putting diastase in a starch solution in test tube at 37°C and after fifteen minutes performing iodine test for presence of starch

7- Bioenergetics


Chapter 7: Bioenergetics

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Bioenergetics and the role of ATP
  • Oxidation and reduction reaction
  • ATP: The cell energy currency
  • Photosynthesis; Mechanism of photosynthesis – Light reactions
  • Mechanism of respiration
  • Energy budget of respiration
  • Assessment
  • Review/Test
  • Practical: Demonstration of the process of photosynthesis using an aquatic plant like Hydrilla
  • Practical: Identification and labelling of the cellular and tissue structure in the CS of a leaf through observation under the microscope
  • Practical: Investigation of the necessity of chlorophyll, light, carbon dioxide, using appropriate controls
  • Practical: Experiment to demonstrate the process of respiration in germinating seeds by using limewater
  • Practical: Investigation of the release of carbon dioxide and heat during aerobic respiration in germinating seeds

8- Nutrition

بیالوجی کا تعارف

Chapter 8: Nutrition

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Mineral Nutrition in Plants
  • Role of nitrogen and magnesium
  • Importance of fertilizers
  • Components of human food
  • Minerals / Role of Calcium and iron
  • Effects of Vitamins (A, C and D)
  • Effects of Water and Dietary fibre
  • Balanced Diet
  • Problems related to nutrition
  • Effect of malnutrition
  • Famine – the major causes
  • Digestion in Humans
  • Ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and defecation,
  • Human alimentary canal – Oral cavity

9- Transport


Chapter 9: Transport 

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Transport in plants; Water and ion uptake
  • Transpiration; Opening and closing of stomata
  • Factors affecting the rate of transpiration; Significance of transpiration
  • Transport of water and transport of food
  • Transport in Humans
  • Blood – Composition & Blood disorders
  • ABO blood group system; Blood transfusions in ABO blood group system
  • Rh blood group systems; Blood transfusions in Rh blood group system
  • Human heart
  • Pulmonary and systemic circulation
  • Heart beat; Heart rate and Pulse rate
  • Blood vessels
  • General plan of human Arterial and Venous system
  • Cardiovascular disorders
  • Practical: Measurement of differences in length/weight of raw potato strips in concentrated salt solution and water
  • Practical: Observation of root hairs on a growing root of onion, carrot etc.
  • Practical: Microscopic observation of the structure and number of stomata in an epidermal peel of a leaf
  • Practical: Investigation of the rate of water loss at the two surfaces of a leaf by a simple experiment using cobalt chloride paper
  • Practical: Investigation of transpiration in potted plant under a bell jar

Biology All Chapter MCQs

معروضی سوالات


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